Alfred Binet was convinced to conduct research into graphology from to He called it "the science of the future" despite rejection of his results by graphologists. His major contribution to the field can be found in Handschrift und Charakter.
References and Further Reading 1. The Nature of Love: Eros, Philia, and Agape The philosophical discussion regarding love logically begins with questions concerning its nature.
This implies that love has a "nature," a proposition that some may oppose arguing that love is conceptually irrational, in the sense that it cannot be described in rational or meaningful propositions. For such critics, who are presenting a metaphysical and epistemological argument, love may be an ejection of emotions that defy rational examination; on the other hand, some languages, such as Papuan, do not even admit the concept, which negates the possibility of a philosophical examination.
In English, the word "love," which is derived from Germanic forms of the Sanskrit lubh desireis broadly defined and hence imprecise, which generates first order problems of definition and meaning, which are resolved to some extent by the reference to the Greek terms, eros, philia, and agape.
Eros The term eros Greek erasthai is used to refer to that part of love constituting a passionate, intense desire for something; it is often referred to as a sexual desire, hence the modern notion of "erotic" Greek erotikos. In Plato 's writings however, eros is held to be a common desire that seeks transcendental beauty-the particular beauty of an individual reminds us of true beauty that exists in the world of Forms or Ideas Phaedrus E: The Platonic-Socratic position maintains that the love we generate for beauty on this earth can never be truly satisfied until we die; but in the meantime we should aspire beyond the particular stimulating image in front of us to the contemplation of beauty in itself.
The implication of the Platonic theory of eros is that ideal beauty, which is reflected in the particular images of beauty we find, becomes interchangeable across people and things, ideas, and art: Reciprocity is not necessary to Plato's view of love, for the desire is for the object of Beautythan for, say, the company of another and shared values and pursuits.
Many in the Platonic vein of philosophy hold that love is an intrinsically higher value than appetitive or physical desire. Physical desire, they note, is held in common with the animal kingdom.
Hence, it is of a lower order of reaction and stimulus than a rationally induced lovethat is, a love produced by rational discourse and exploration of ideas, which in turn defines the pursuit of Ideal beauty.
Accordingly, the physical love of an object, an idea, or a person in itself is not a proper form of love, love being a reflection of that part of the object, idea, or person, that partakes in Ideal beauty. Philia In contrast to the desiring and passionate yearning of eros, philia entails a fondness and appreciation of the other.
For the Greeks, the term philia incorporated not just friendship, but also loyalties to family and polis-one's political community, job, or discipline.
The motivational distinctions are derived from love for another because the friendship is wholly useful as in the case of business contacts, or because their character and values are pleasing with the implication that if those attractive habits change, so too does the friendshipor for the other in who they are in themselves, regardless of one's interests in the matter.
The English concept of friendship roughly captures Aristotle's notion of philia, as he writes: Aristotle elaborates on the kinds of things we seek in proper friendship, suggesting that the proper basis for philia is objective: Philia could not emanate from those who are quarrelsome, gossips, aggressive in manner and personality, who are unjust, and so on.
The best characters, it follows, may produce the best kind of friendship and hence love: The most rational man is he who would be the happiest, and he, therefore, who is capable of the best form of friendship, which between two "who are good, and alike in virtue" is rare NE, VIII.
We can surmise that love between such equals-Aristotle's rational and happy men-would be perfect, with circles of diminishing quality for those who are morally removed from the best. He characterizes such love as "a sort of excess of feeling".
A business friendship is based on utility--on mutual reciprocity of similar business interests; once the business is at an end, then the friendship dissolves. This is similar to those friendships based on the pleasure that is derived from the other's company, which is not a pleasure enjoyed for whom the other person is in himself, but in the flow of pleasure from his actions or humour.
The first condition for the highest form of Aristotelian love is that a man loves himself. Without an egoistic basis, he cannot extend sympathy and affection to others NE, IX.
Such self-love is not hedonistic, or glorified, depending on the pursuit of immediate pleasures or the adulation of the crowd, it is instead a reflection of his pursuit of the noble and virtuous, which culminate in the pursuit of the reflective life.
Friendship with others is required "since his purpose is to contemplate worthy actions The morally virtuous man deserves in turn the love of those below him; he is not obliged to give an equal love in return, which implies that the Aristotelian concept of love is elitist or perfectionist: Reciprocity, although not necessarily equal, is a condition of Aristotelian love and friendship, although parental love can involve a one-sided fondness.
Agape Agape refers to the paternal love of God for man and of man for God but is extended to include a brotherly love for all humanity. The Hebrew ahev has a slightly wider semantic range than agape. Agape arguably draws on elements from both eros and philia in that it seeks a perfect kind of love that is at once a fondness, a transcending of the particular, and a passion without the necessity of reciprocity.
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The concept is expanded on in the Judaic-Christian tradition of loving God: The love of God requires absolute devotion that is reminiscent of Plato's love of Beauty and Christian translators of Plato such as St.
Augustine employed the connectionswhich involves an erotic passion, awe, and desire that transcends earthly cares and obstacles. Aquinas, on the other hand, picked up on the Aristotelian theories of friendship and love to proclaim God as the most rational being and hence the most deserving of one's love, respect, and considerations.
The universalist command to "love thy neighbor as thyself" refers the subject to those surrounding him, whom he should love unilaterally if necessary. The command employs the logic of mutual reciprocity, and hints at an Aristotelian basis that the subject should love himself in some appropriate manner:Two popular definitions of love are Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love and Fisher’s theory of love.
   Sternberg defines love in terms of intimacy, passion, and commitment, which he claims exist in varying levels in different romantic relationships. Philosophy of Love. This article examines the nature of love and some of the ethical and political ramifications.
For the philosopher, the question “what is love?” generates a host of issues: love is an abstract noun which means for some it is a word unattached to anything real or sensible, that is all; for others, it is a means by which our being—our self and its world—are irrevocably.
the Passionate Love Scale, the Relationship Rating Form, and a measure of love and attachment (Shaver & Hazan, ). The measures were given to unmarried college Fehr, B. (). Prototype analysis of the concepts of love and commitment.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, One of the ways people utilize autosomal DNA for genealogical matching is by looking for common segments of DNA that match with known, or unknown, relatives.
When the relationship to the person is unknown, we attempt to utilize how much DNA we share with that person as a predictor of how, or at what level, we're. Ready for a different view of love altogether? Read We: Understanding the Psychology of Romantic Love, by Robert A.
Johnson. The six-stage relationship model is not a guideline that every relationship must follow; however, it is a model that my relationship with my mom follows closely.
The first stage is the contact stage, which involves perceptual contact and interactional contact.