Doi Moi Reforms "My opponent claims Vietnam has more of a socialist-oriented economy, however, Vietnam is still heavily in debt because of state-owned companies and banks going bankrupt. Many people are still unhappy from their failed communist economy and are turning mutinous.
French Administration[ edit ] The French now moved to impose a Western-style administration on their colonial territories and to open them to economic exploitation. Paul Doumer, who arrived inFrench rule was imposed directly at all levels of administration, leaving the Vietnamese bureaucracy without any real power.
Even Vietnamese emperors were deposed at will and replaced by others willing to serve the French. All important positions within the bureaucracy were staffed with officials imported from France; even in the s, after several periods of reforms and concessions to local nationalist sentiment, Vietnamese officials were employed only in minor positions and at very low salaries, and the country was still administered along the lines laid down by Doumer.
Funding for the colonial government came by means of taxes on locals and the French government established a near monopoly on the trade of opium, salt and rice alcohol. Indochina was the second most invested-in French colony by after Algeria, with investments totaling up to 6.
The exploitation of natural resources for direct export was the chief purpose of all French investments, with rice, coal, rare minerals, and later also rubber as the main products. Doumer and his successors up to the eve of World War II were not interested in promoting industry there, the development of which was limited to the production of goods for immediate local consumption.
Among these enterprises—located chiefly in Saigon, Hanoi, and Haiphong the outport for Hanoi —were breweries, distilleries, small sugar refineries, rice and paper mills, and glass and cement factories. The greatest industrial establishment was a textile factory at Nam Dinh, which employed more than 5, workers.
The total number of workers employed by all industries and mines in Vietnam was somein At the turn of the 20th century, the growing automobile industry in France resulted in the growth of the rubber industry in French indochina, and plantations were built throughout the colony, especially in Annam and Cochinchina.
France soon became a leading producer of rubber through its Indochina colony and Indochinese rubber became prized in the industrialized world. The success of rubber plantations in French Indochina resulted in an increase in investment in the colony by various firms such as Michelin.
These new factories produced textiles, cigarettes, beer and cement which were then exported throughout the French Empire. Because the aim of all investments was not the systematic economic development of the colony but the attainment of immediate high returns for investors, only a small fraction of the profits was reinvested.
Effects of French colonial rule[ edit ] Whatever economic progress Vietnam made under the French after benefited only the French and the small class of wealthy Vietnamese created by the colonial regime. The masses of the Vietnamese people were deprived of such benefits by the social policies inaugurated by Doumer and maintained even by his more liberal successors, such as Paul Beau —07Albert Sarraut —14 and —19and Alexandre Varenne — Through the construction of irrigation works, chiefly in the Mekong delta, the area of land devoted to rice cultivation quadrupled between and The new lands were not distributed among the landless and the peasants but were sold to the highest bidder or given away at nominal prices to Vietnamese collaborators and French speculators.
These policies created a new class of Vietnamese landlords and a class of landless tenants who worked the fields of the landlords for rents of up to 60 percent of the crop, which was sold by the landlords at the Saigon export market.
The mounting export figures for rice resulted not only from the increase in cultivable land but also from the growing exploitation of the peasantry. The peasants who owned their land were rarely better off than the landless tenants. Peasants continually lost their land to the large owners because they were unable to repay loans given them by the landlords and other moneylenders at exorbitant interest rates.
As a result, the large landowners of Cochinchina less than 3 percent of the total number of landowners owned 45 percent of the land, while the small peasants who accounted for about 70 percent of the owners owned only about 15 percent of the land. The number of landless families in Vietnam before World War II was estimated at half of the population.
Other ways of making the Vietnamese pay for the projects undertaken for the benefit of the French were the recruitment of forced labour for public works and the absence of any protection against exploitation in the mines and rubber plantations, although the scandalous working conditions, the low salaries, and the lack of medical care were frequently attacked in the French Chamber of Deputies in Paris.
The mild social legislation decreed in the late s was never adequately enforced. Apologists for the colonial regime claimed that French rule led to vast improvements in medical care, education, transport, and communications.
The statistics kept by the French, however, appear to cast doubt on such assertions. Infor example, no more than 15 percent of all school-age children received any kind of schooling, and about 80 percent of the population was illiterate, in contrast to precolonial times when the majority of the people possessed some degree of literacy.
With its more than 20 million inhabitants inVietnam had but one university, with fewer than students. Medical care was well organized for the French in the cities, but in there were only 2 physicians for everyVietnamese, compared with 76 perin Japan and 25 perin the Philippines. Two other aspects of French colonia policy are significant when considering the attitude of the Vietnamese people, especially their educated minority, toward the colonial regime: Not only were rubber plantations, mines, and industrial enterprises in foreign hands—French, where the business was substantial, and Chinese at the lower levels—but all other business was as well, from local trade to the great export-import houses.
The social consequence of this policy was that, apart from the landlords, no property-owning indigenous middle class developed in colonial Vietnam.
Thus, capitalism appeared to the Vietnamese to be a part of foreign rule; this view, together with the lack of any Vietnamese participation in government, profoundly influenced the nature and orientation of the national resistance movements.
All private enterprise and private ownership was prohibited  During the Vietnam WarUnited States air strikes in the North, beginning in earlyslowed large-scale construction considerably as laborers were diverted to repairing bomb damage.Though Westerners see "crony capitalism" and consumerism driving the new Vietnam, Quan Hoang Vuong, a U.S.-educated economist, prefers to describe the new economic .
Communism was a disaster for Vietnam. Vietnam would be much better if the economy opened up earlier. Communism does not work, it is impractical as you cannot create a wealthy society if everyone depends on the government to sustain their lifestyle.
Meanwhile, South Vietnam's free market economy conducted extensive trade with other anti-communist or non-communist countries, such as the US, Canada, France, West Germany, Japan and Thailand. The Southern economy between and became increasingly dependent on foreign aid, particularly in the late 60s until the Fall of Saigon.
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Communism was a disaster for Vietnam. Vietnam would be much better if the economy opened up earlier. Communism does not work, it is. On July 11, , the United States normalized relations with Vietnam.
But signs of a new country, one closely allied to western capitalism, were increasingly visible in the early s. All of these share the analysis that the current order of society stems from its economic system, capitalism; which according to this analysis is the primary element in the transformation of society towards communism.
The General History of Socialism and Social Struggles Volumes 1 & 2. New York, Russel and Russel, Inc.