Cng affected air pollution levels

During the autumn and winter months, some million tons of crop residue are burntand winds blow from India's north and northwest towards east. For the past few years, cities in northern India have been covered in a thick layer of winter smog.

Cng affected air pollution levels

NG is immiscible in water and the gas floats on water. NG is soluble in alcohol, ether and hydro carbons. The vapour density of NG is in the range of 0.

Its specific gravity is 0. Its boiling point is deg C and melting point is deg C. The flash point of NG is deg C.

NG has an auto ignition temperature which is in the range of deg C to deg C. The heat value of a fuel refers to the amount of energy released during complete combustion of one mass unit of the fuel, with the fuel and oxidant at a reference temperature and pressure.

The properties of the fuel affect heat value in that the fewer inert elements the gas contains, the greater is its heat value. NG is a fuel with a high carbon and hydrogen content, making it the fuel with the highest heat value after pure hydrogen.

However, the heat value of NG normally varies according to its content of inert elements or heavy hydrocarbons. NG is considered to be non-toxic by inhalation. If gas escapes in a confined area, it can displace the air and its oxygen from the space. Lack of oxygen asphyxiates any person who remains in that gas filled space.

Inhalation of high concentrations may cause central nervous system depression such as dizziness, drowsiness, headache, and similar narcotic symptoms, but no long term effects.

Symptoms of overexposure include rapid respiration, nausea, disorientation, visual disturbances, mental confusion, in-coordination, mood changes, muscular weakness, tremors, cyanosis, narcosis and numbness of the extremities, and loss of consciousness and mobility. Exposure limits of NG is based on oxygen displacement.

Affected person may not be aware of asphyxiation. In case of inhalement, the affected person is to be removed to the fresh air area and to be kept warm and rested.

In case large quantity is inhaled then artificial resuscitation is to be provided. Vapours are not irritating. Direct contact to skin or mucous membranes with pressurized vapour can cause freeze burns and frostbite.

Signs of frostbite include a change in the colour of the skin to gray or white, possibly followed by blistering. Skin may become inflamed and painful.

Impact of CNG on vehicular pollution in Delhi: a note - ScienceDirect

In case of NG exposure to skin, the clothes are to be removed and the affected area is to be washed with plenty of water. NG can be flammable when it leaks and mixes with air.

The fire is caused at a right proportion of air and NG and there is a source of ignition or a flame. It can cause explosion if NG accumulates in a confined space such as in the building where there is not enough ventilation. In case of leakage, steps are to be taken to shut off leaks if it is without risk.

Everyone in the vicinity is to be warned that the air mixture is explosive. All ignition sources are to be eliminated if it is safe to do so. If spill or leak has not ignited, determine if water spray may assist in dispersing gas or vapour to protect personnel attempting to stop leak.

Adequate ventilation is to be used to keep gas and vapour concentrations of NG below occupational exposure and flammability limits, particularly in confined spaces. In case of fire, the burning gas is allowed to burn and not to be extinguished unless leak is stopped safely.

If a NG fire is extinguished and the flow of gas is not stopped, a highly explosive NG-air mixture can accumulate, creating a potentially dangerous hazard if a new source of ignition is introduced. Normally water is used to cool equipment, surfaces and containers exposed to fire and excessive heat.

For large fire the use of unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles are advantageous to further minimize personnel exposure. The area need to be isolated, particularly around ends of storage vessels. Large fires typically require specially trained personnel and equipment to isolate and extinguish the fire.

A very dangerous hazard exist when exposed to heat or flame. Fire extinguishing media are foamdry chemical powder and water spray.Transport. Page updated: Major revision March Last amendment Autumn Background. TR The past decades have seen a dramatic rise in the distances generally being travelled and a great shift towards the use of less equitable and unsustainable methods of transport.

Cng affected air pollution levels

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