Causes of heart failure The heart is a double pump made up of four chambers. Deoxygenated blood from the veins enters the right upper chamber right atriumis passed to the right lower chamber right ventricleand then pumped to the lungs. Oxygenated blood from the lungs enters the left upper chamber left atrium and then enters the left lower chamber left ventricle. The blood is then pumped around the body, under pressure, via arteries.
Congestive heart failure can be caused by: The heart has two atria right atrium and left atrium that make up the upper chambers of the heart, and two ventricles left ventricle and right ventricle that make up the lower chambers of the heart.
The ventricles are muscular chambers that pump blood when the muscles contract the contraction of the ventricle muscles is called systole. Many diseases can impair the pumping action of the ventricles.
For example, the muscles of the ventricles can be weakened by heart attacks or infections myocarditis. The diminished pumping ability of the ventricles due to muscle weakening is called systolic dysfunction.
After each ventricular contraction systole the ventricle muscles need to relax to allow blood from the atria to fill the ventricles. This relaxation of the ventricles is called diastole. The most common cause of this is longstanding high blood pressure resulting in a thickened hypertrophied heart.
In some patients one or more of these factors can be present to cause congestive heart failure. The remainder of this article will focus primarily on congestive heart failure that is due to heart muscle weaknesssystolic dysfunction. Congestive heart failure can affect many organs of the body.
For example, the weakened heart muscles may not be able to supply enough blood to the kidneys, which then begin to lose their normal ability to excrete salt sodium and water. This diminished kidney function can cause to body to retain more fluid.
Fluid may likewise accumulate in the liver, thereby impairing its ability to rid the body of toxins and produce essential proteins. The intestines may become less efficient in absorbing nutrients and medicines.
Over time, untreated, worsening congestive heart failure will affect virtually every organ in the body.The article you have been looking for has expired and is not longer available on our system.
This is due to newswire licensing terms. Medical Negligence. Introduction. This Chapter aims to discuss the following: What is meant by medical negligence?
What are the available remedies for victims of medical negligence? What have been the recent trends of the judiciary in the matters pertaining to medical negligence and deficiency in medical services?
Negligence can be described as failure to take due care, as a. Heart failure only occurs when severe, overwhelming heart disease is present.
In the case of chronic mitral regurgitation that means the defect (hole) in the mitral valve has to be so. ROCK LAB. Self-Learning Modules.
Independent Study Students Cell Injury, Inflammation and Repair. Congestive heart failure is the most common discharge diagnosis in patients older than 65 years.1 The incidence of heart failure in patients older than 80 years is 9 percent.2 Unfortunately, the.
You and your doctor have many options for managing heart failure. In the early stages, lifestyle measures and medications are usually all that are needed to keep symptoms under control. But as the disease becomes more severe, you may need more advanced treatments, such as an implantable device, to improve heart function.