Additional measures to reduce susceptibility include: Fuses, trip switches and circuit breakers. Design for operation at higher signal levels, reducing the relative noise level in comparison. Error-correction techniques in digital circuitry.
How to Calculate Filter Insertion Loss Filter insertion loss is a measure of how well an EMI filter attenuates a signal as it passes through the filter. Normally expressed in decibels, filter insertion loss is the ratio of the input signal to the output signal.
However, what if you just want to calculate the attenuation of the EMI filter? EMI Analyst can do Emc analysis too. Its topology is typical of many off-the-shelf filter modules. The filter contains a two-pole LC differential mode section and a two-pole LC common mode section.
Short circuit corner frequencies for the filter are 50 kHz differential mode and kHz common mode. However, when measured in a 50 ohm system, the corner frequencies shift, due to the loading effects of the source and load impedances.
Standard EMI Filter Measurements EMI filters are measured by connecting a signal source across the filter input terminals and then measuring the signal amplitude across the output terminals. Differential mode insertion loss and common mode insertion loss are measured separately.
Because radio frequency test equipment normally has input and output impedances that are 50 ohm, the filter is said to be measured in a 50 ohm system.
The 50 ohm source and load need to be simulated when calculating filter insertion loss with EMI Analyst so that simulation data is comparable to measured results.
It can be done as a conducted emissions simulation using CE Analyst or as a conducted susceptibility simulation using CS Analyst.
We use CS Analyst here, but either method is equally effective. It simulates what happens to the circuitry when signals couple to cabling conductors.
For differential mode DM we inject 1 volt in series with each input line, but with opposite polarity, as shown in the left-hand diagram above, applying net 2 volts total.
For common mode CM we inject 2 volts on both input lines simultaneously, as shown in the right-hand diagram above. At low frequencies, where the filter provides little filtering, the applied voltage divides equally across the 50 ohm source impedance and 50 ohm load impedance, 1 volt across each.
As frequency increases, insertion loss increases and the voltage at the load decreases. The ratio of the output voltage to the input voltage gives us the filter insertion loss. Wire pair over ground plane or wire pair, minimum length 6. Contains filter schematic and 50 ohm line-to-line.
Calculated insertion loss shows the DM corner frequency shifted from 50 kHz to 11 kHz, as expected. Short circuit line-to-line, 50 ohm line-to-chassis 5. Contains filter schematic, Short circuit line-to-line, 50 ohm line-to-chassis Calculated insertion loss shows the CM corner frequency shifted from kHz to kHz, as expected.Each mL of concentrate contains 10 mg of nivolumab.
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