For as they have been successful in inducing belief, so they have been effective in quenching and stopping inquiry; and have done more harm by spoiling and putting an end to other men's efforts than good by their own.
The nature of Western philosophy The Western tradition It would be difficult if not impossible to find two philosophers who would define philosophy in exactly the same way. Throughout its long and varied history in the West, philosophy has meant many different things.
Even these do not exhaust the meanings that have been attached to the philosophical enterprise, but they give some idea of its extreme complexity and many-sidedness. It is difficult to determine whether any common element can be found within this diversity and whether any core meaning can serve as a universal and all-inclusive definition.
Thus, although there are a few single-term divisions of philosophy of long standing—such as logicethicsepistemologyor metaphysics —its divisions are probably best expressed by phrases that contain the preposition of—such as philosophy of mindphilosophy of sciencephilosophy of lawand philosophy of art aesthetics.
Part of what makes it difficult to find a consensus among philosophers about the definition of their discipline is precisely that they have frequently come to it from different fields, with different interests and concerns, and that they therefore have different areas of experience upon which they find it especially necessary or meaningful to reflect.
Some philosophers, such as Plato c. And still others—such as the Milesians the first philosophers of Greece, from the ancient Anatolian city of MiletusFrancis Bacon —an Elizabethan philosopher, and Alfred North Whitehead —an English metaphysician—began with an interest in the physical composition of the natural world, so that their philosophies resemble more closely the generalizations of physical science than those of religion or sociology.
The history of Western philosophy reveals in detail the concentrated activity of a multitude of serious and able thinkers reflecting upon, reasoning about, and considering deeply the nature of their experience.
But throughout this diversity certain characteristic oppositions continually recur, such as those between monism, dualismand pluralism in metaphysics see pluralism and monism ; between materialism and idealism in cosmological theory; between nominalism and realism in the theory of signification; between rationalism and empiricism in epistemology; between utilitarianism and deontological ethics in moral theory; and between partisans of logic and partisans of emotion in the search for a responsible guide to the wisdom of life.
Many of these fundamental oppositions among philosophers will be treated in the article that follows. But if any single opposition is taken as central throughout the history of Western philosophy at every level and in every field, it is probably that between the critical and the speculative impulses.
These two divergent motivations tend to express themselves in two divergent methods: Moore —a founder of analytic philosophyis an example of the first.
Beginning with a simple question about justicethe Republic in its discursiveness slowly but progressively brings more and more areas into the discussion: Starting with one specific question, Plato finally managed to make his discussion as broad as the world.
Principia Ethica does just the opposite. Beginning with a general question—What is good? The analyticor critical, impulse treats any subject matter or topic by concentrating upon the part, by taking it apart in the service of clarity and precision.
The syntheticor speculative, impulse operates by seeking to comprehend the whole, by putting it all together in the service of unity and completeness. There is one philosophical tradition—that of logical positivism —that sees philosophy as originating in the obscure mists of religion and coming finally to rest in the pure sunshine of scientific clarity.
Although logical positivism represents a partisan view, it does express indirectly a basic truth—that the philosophical enterprise has always hovered uncertainly between the lure of religious devotion and that of scientific exactitude.
With respect to a total description of Being or a definitive account of the nature of values, only individual solutions now seem possible; and the optimistic hope for objective answers that secure universal agreement must be given up.
In this respect, philosophy seems less like science than like art and philosophers more like artists than like scientists, for their philosophical solutions bear the stamp of their own personalities, and their choice of arguments reveals as much about themselves as their chosen problem.The arguments presented by both Francis Bacon and Plato both call for different approaches in pursuing knowledge.
In doing this, one must be accurately point out the important facets present in each argument and deduce what style is appropriate for an individual’s use.
THE NEW ORGANON OR TRUE DIRECTIONS CONCERNING THE INTERPRETATION OF NATURE. Francis Bacon. [Note on the Text] AUTHOR'S PREFACE. Those who have taken upon them to lay down the law of nature as a thing already searched out and understood, whether they have spoken in simple assurance or professional affectation, have therein done philosophy and the sciences great injury.
philosophy. Curious about the major works and figures in the study of the nature of reality and existence? From Plato to Foucault, we break down the main ideas in philosophical thought.
Francis Bacon was the next in line of these great initiates—the third Plato—who likewise laid the foundations for the next leap in human consciousness and development, building upon the inheritance left by Ficino (added to by Pico and others), who himself built.
Sir Francis Bacon was the outstanding apostle of Renaissance empiricism. Less an original metaphysician or cosmologist than the advocate of a vast new program for the advancement of learning and the reformation of scientific method, Bacon conceived of philosophy as a new technique.
Francis Bacon Term Paper. Pages: 5 ( words) Download Full Paper (5 Pages) Ask Us to Write a *NEW* Paper ¶ Allegory of the Cave by Plato and the Four Idols by Francis Bacon. This paper shall try to explore the thoughts of the two authors mentioned and compare them as how one text is similar or different to the other.