Early life of L. Ron Hubbard and Military career of L. Ron Hubbard and Thomas S. Moulton in Portland, Oregon in L.
The most common form of self-harm involves cutting of the skin using a sharp object, e. The term self-mutilation is also sometimes used, although this phrase evokes connotations that some find worrisome, inaccurate, or offensive.
A broader definition of self-harm might also include those who inflict harm on their bodies by means of disordered eating. The older literature has used several different terms. For this reason research in the past decades has inconsistently focused on self-harming behavior without and with suicidal intent including suicide attempts with varying definitions leading to inconsistent and unclear results.
Criteria for NSSI include five or more days of self-inflicted harm over the course of one year without suicidal intent, and the individual must have been motivated by seeking relief from a negative state, resolving an interpersonal difficulty, or achieving a positive state. Many self-harmers are very self-conscious of their wounds and scars and feel guilty about their behaviour, leading them to go to great lengths to conceal their behaviour from others.
People who self-harm are not usually seeking to end their own life; it has been suggested instead that they are using self-harm as a coping mechanism to relieve emotional pain or discomfort or as an attempt to communicate distress.
It is often seen as only a symptom of an underlying disorder,  though many people who self-harm would like this to be addressed. The key areas of disorder which exhibit an increased risk include autism spectrum disorders  borderline personality disorderbipolar disorder depression  phobias and conduct disorders.
Those diagnosed with schizophrenia have a high risk of suicide, which is particularly greater in younger patients as they may not have an insight into the serious effects that the disorder can have on their lives.
However, the link between genetics and self-harm in otherwise healthy patients is largely inconclusive. Benzodiazepine dependence as well as benzodiazepine withdrawal is associated with self-harming behaviour in young people. There is also a positive statistical correlation between self-harm and emotional abuse.
This may sound strange. It may also be an attempt to affect others and to manipulate them in some way emotionally. This may be achieved by tricking the mind into believing that the present suffering being felt is caused by the self-harm instead of the issues they were facing previously: Those who self-harm sometimes describe feelings of emptiness or numbness anhedoniaand physical pain may be a relief from these feelings.
It may even be hard for some to actually initiate cutting, but they often do because they know the relief that will follow. For some self-harmers this relief is primarily psychological while for others this feeling of relief comes from the beta endorphins released in the brain.
As a coping mechanism, self-harm can become psychologically addictive because, to the self-harmer, it works; it enables them to deal with intense stress in the current moment.
The patterns sometimes created by it, such as specific time intervals between acts of self-harm, can also create a behavioural pattern that can result in a wanting or craving to fulfill thoughts of self-harm.
Some of this is environmental and some of this is due to physiological differences in responding. The sympathetic nervous system innervates e. Studies of adolescents have shown that adolescents who self-injure have greater physiological reactivity e. Treatment[ edit ] There is considerable uncertainty about which forms of psychosocial and physical treatments of people who harm themselves are most effective.
Dialectical behaviour therapy DBT can be successful for those individuals exhibiting a personality disorder, and could potentially be used for those with other mental disorders who exhibit self-harming behaviour. Diagnosis and treatment of the causes of self-harm is thought by many to be the best approach to treating self-harm.
People who rely on habitual self-harm are sometimes hospitalised, based on their stability, their ability and especially their willingness to get help. As developmentally disabled individuals often have communication or social deficits, self-harm may be their way of obtaining these things which they are otherwise unable to obtain in a socially appropriate way such as by asking.
One approach for treating self-harm thus is to teach an alternative, appropriate response which obtains the same result as the self-harm.Article PDF. Introduction. The early s marked the first publications both in English studies and communication studies to address lesbian and gay issues.
Article PDF. Introduction. The early s marked the first publications both in English studies and communication studies to address lesbian and gay issues. Responses to “Walter Lewin” jd Says: Comment #1 December 10th, at pm.
I disagree about the lectures. Given the recent cases of reported rape as well as the recent survey which showed that a large percentage of undergrads were sexually harassed, I feel . Declarations of Whiteness: The Non-Performativity of Anti-Racism. Sara Ahmed The University of Lancaster.
This paper examines six different modes for declaring whiteness used within academic writing, public culture and government policy, arguing that such declarations are non-performative: they do not do what they say. The Scientology symbol is composed of the letter S, which stands for Scientology, and the ARC and KRC triangles, two important concepts in Scientology.
Published: Tue, 07 Mar The Application Of Systems Theory. To a Case Study. Introduction. The following case study will detail an intervention with a year old service user who was referred with a range of presenting issues and needs.