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Abstract Combining meaning, memory, and development, the perennially popular topic of intuition can be approached in a new way. Fuzzy-trace theory integrates these topics by distinguishing between meaning-based gist representations, which support fuzzy yet advanced intuition, and superficial verbatim representations of information, which support precise analysis.
Here, I review the counterintuitive findings that led to the development of the theory and its most recent extensions to the neuroscience of risky decision making. These findings include memory interference worse verbatim memory is associated with better reasoning ; nonnumerical framing framing effects increase when numbers are deleted from decision problems ; developmental decreases in gray matter and increases in brain connectivity; developmental reversals in memory, judgment, and decision making heuristics and biases based on gist increase from childhood to adulthood, challenging conceptions of rationality ; and selective attention effects that provide critical tests comparing fuzzy-trace theory, expected utility theory, and its variants e.
Surprising implications for judgment and decision making in real life are also discussed, notably, that adaptive decision making relies mainly on gist-based intuition in law, medicine, and public health.
Which hot topics today will turn into the enduring foundational assumptions of tomorrow? These questions concern new investigators, as they place bets with their most precious commodity, their time, by choosing topics in hopes of making an impact on the field.
However, although new investigators strive to be original and forward thinking, they are also counseled to conduct programmatic and cumulative research. That is, to make progress on important topics, scientists must build on prior accomplishments, their own and those of others.
In this essay, I provide an overview of recent developments in one theory, and their origins in prior scientific research.
Moreover, the topics were chosen with a view to the future. These are my bets about which approaches have been productive and are gathering momentum.
Fortunately, these prognostications are more than simply my opinions barely more than that perhaps because they are based on the behavior of a community of scholars.
These ideas continue to gain greater currency as our field searches for new paradigms and preoccupations e. What are the topics that I, and others, believe are taking off and will continue to progress? Among the new trends, the most established topic—one that draws on a rich supply of prior research—is memory.
Memory is much more than memorization, as I presently explain. A growing number of contemporary theories have memory as a common denominator e.
Development, defined as changes across the lifespan, is another topic that has gained ground. Because of links to aging and to adolescent risk taking in psychiatry, public health, and neuroscience, this topic has surged in popularity, although it is less established within judgment and decision making e.
Notwithstanding that Tversky and Kahneman drew on Piagetian cognitive illusions to characterize heuristics and biases e. These results have been surprising. Nevertheless, the concept of meaning has tremendous potential to organize thinking about judgment and decision making, to propel the field forward in new and original directions, and to effect practical changes in real-world behavior e.
Fuzzy-trace theory integrates these topics by distinguishing between meaning-based memory representations—gist—and superficial verbatim representations of information. People use their memories to represent information even when the information is visible.
Intuition, in this view, relies on the meaning-based gist representations, but it is not developmentally primitive Barrouillet, a.
On the contrary, intuitive thinking underlies the most advanced thinking e. However, intuition produces meaning-based distortions in memory and reasoning. These findings were predicted by the framework described here e. In the section below on Origins, I describe how this integrated account of meaning, memory, and development came about.
Before that account, however, I summarize the central premises of fuzzy-trace theory; provide examples of how these premises are supported by critical tests of explicit hypotheses; and describe how these theoretical ideas differ from others.
Although I provide a summary of the basic tenets of the theory here, the evidence for it comes from a very large literature; so no single study tests the entire theory.Experimental Design Kate Watkins Department of Experimental Psychology University of Oxford With thanks to: A very simple experiment Task paradigm: rest move rest move rest move rest FMRI signal time M1c SMA PMCc M1i (does not make assumption of pure insertion)} Main effect of Touch} Ma ine fct oVs Positive Interactions Touch No Touch.
The History of the U.S. Army Medical Service Corps The History of the u.s. Army Medical Service Corps by RichaTd VN Ginn,\ IIUTARY INSTRVCTION OFFICE OF THE SURGEON GENERAL AND. Rational Theory of Cognition in Psychology 1. People Appear Irrational in Cogniti−e Experiments Michael Watkins has said that a cognitive theory ‘is a bit like someone else’s toothbrush—it is ﬁne for that individual’s use, but for the rest of us well, we would just rather not, thank you’ (Watkins .
28m ago @SBSFRENCH tweeted: "Nothing on TV tonight? Why not listen an.." - read what others are saying and join the conversation. Whorf was groping toward concepts or terms of a more general or abstract nature than those provided by any language.
None help, as Whorf complained in a short unpublished note which, supplied with the wholly arbitrary title "On psychology," is also printed here. Yet, much of Whorf's work is extremely close to psychology.
It is proposed that an item becomes distinctive due to increase in the change within a distributed episodic context representation, induced by novelty detection.
The theory makes three assumptions. First, items become associated with a distributed context representation. Second, the context representation changes with item presentation.