Both The age of the Universe is determined from its expansion rate: The radial velocity is easy to measure, but the distances are not.
A new paper, inspired by alternative explanations of the physics of black holes, explores the latter possibility, and rejects a core tenet of the Big Bang hypothesis. The universal origin story known as the Big Bang postulates that, There is ample evidence to show that the universe did undergo an early period of rapid expansion — in a trillionth of a trillionth of a trillionth of a second, the universe is thought to have expanded by a factor of in volume.
For one, the universe is still expanding in every direction. The farther away an object is, the faster it appears to move away from an observer, suggesting that space itself is expanding rather than objects simply moving through space at a steady rate.
It can be observed in every direction and has no single origin point.
However, there is no direct evidence of the original singularity. Collecting information from that first moment of expansion is impossible with current methods. In the new paper, Brazilian physicist Juliano Cesar Silva Neves argues that the original singularity may never have existed.
This map of the sky shows light from the cosmic microwave background CMBor light left over from the initial expansion of the universe. The colors indicate temperature variations in the CMB.
NASA Most astronomers believe the universe began Other theorists have invented alternatives and extensions to this theory. He said that "there are many observations in cosmology" that support the hypothesis that the universe went through a period of rapid expansion, but that there is no direct evidence that this expansion started with a singularity.
In a paper published Aug. His model includes a concept known as bouncing cosmology. The concept first appeared at least 40 years ago, and it agrees that the universe is expanding, but does not assume that the universe came into being when that expansion started and the universe was infinitely small.
Instead, it proposes that the universe is eternally undergoing a cycle of contraction and expansion. These alternating phases smoothly follow each other like the phases of the tide.
Silva Neves combines this concept with alternative theories of the physics of black holes. Similar to the original singularity from which the universe emerged, black holes are believed to have a point of infinite density in their center.
But while a point of "infinite" mass can exist easily on paper, scientists have always struggled with how such a thing could exist in reality. And general relativity suggests that the normal laws of physics break down inside a singularity, and thus it offers little guidance to resolve this conundrum.
In a paper, physicist James Bardeen proposed a concept of the so-called regular black hole — that is a black hole without a singularity in the middle. Such a black hole is mathematically possible if its mass is not constant, but rather depends on the distance to its center.
Silva Neves said his "cosmological model was built from studies in regular black holes," and avoids the need for a singularity in both black holes and the beginning of universal expansion. He notes, however, that this is still purely hypothetical.
Gravitational waves are ripples in the universal fabric of spacetime; they were directly detected for the first time in Original article on Space.Cosmology The Big Bang Theory: Three Famous Dissident Scientists on Problems of The Big Bang Theory.
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|Keep Exploring Britannica||This principle applies only to the large-scale properties of the universe, but it does imply that the universe has no edge, so that the big-bang origin occurred not at a particular point in space but rather throughout space at the same time. These two assumptions make it possible to calculate the history of the cosmos after a certain epoch called the Planck time.|
|Big-bang model | cosmology | pfmlures.com||Timeline of cosmology and List of cosmologists Modern cosmology developed along tandem tracks of theory and observation. InAlbert Einstein published his theory of general relativitywhich provided a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time.|
|ADDITIONAL MEDIA||Both The age of the Universe is determined from its expansion rate: The radial velocity is easy to measure, but the distances are not.|
Quotes, Quotations Eric Lerner, Bill Mitchell, Halton Arp. Information on The Big Bang Theory. Physical cosmology is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate.
Cosmology as a science originated with the Copernican principle, which implies that celestial bodies obey identical physical laws to those on . The evidence for the Big Bang comes from many pieces of observational data that are consistent with the Big Bang.
None of these prove the Big Bang, since scientific theories are not proven. Many of these facts are consistent with the Big Bang and some other cosmological models, but taken together.
The Big Bang has no center. It is not an explosion radiating from a point. In an explosion you get an expanding spherical shell of fragments as shown below: This shell has both an outer and an inner edge, and these can be used to locate the position of the explosion.
But in the Big Bang there is no. Was the universe created with a Big Bang billion years ago, or has it been expanding and contracting for eternity?
A new paper, inspired by alternative explanations of the physics of black. The Big Bang is a naturalistic story about the origin and development of the universe (e.g.
a cosmology), beginning with a “singularity” when all mass, energy, and space was contained in a small point.