He has done this, in part, because some styles are better at conveying a certain message than others.
But not everything expressed in words—even when organized and written down—is counted as literature. Those writings that are primarily informative—technical, scholarly, journalistic—would be excluded from the rank of literature by most, though not all, critics. Certain forms of writing, however, are universally regarded as belonging to literature as an art.
Individual attempts within these forms are said to succeed if they possess something called artistic merit and to fail if they do not. The nature of artistic merit is less easy to define than to recognize.
The writer need not even pursue it to attain it. On the contrary, a scientific exposition might be of great literary value and a pedestrian poem of none at all. The purest or, at least, the most intense literary form is the lyric poem, and after it comes elegiac, epic, dramatic, narrative, and expository verse.
Most theories of literary criticism base themselves on an analysis of poetrybecause the aesthetic problems of literature are there presented in their simplest and purest form.
Poetry that fails as literature is not called poetry at all but verse. The Greeks thought of history as one of the seven arts, inspired by a goddess, the muse Clio.
The essay was once written deliberately as a piece of literature: Today most essays are written as expository, informative journalismalthough there are still essayists in the great tradition who think of themselves as artists.
Now, as in the past, some of the greatest essayists are critics of literature, drama, and the arts. Some examples of this biographical literature were written with posterity in mind, others with no thought of their being read by anyone but the writer. Some are in a highly polished literary style; others, couched in a privately evolved language, win their standing as literature because of their cogency, insight, depth, and scope.
Many works of philosophy are classed as literature. The Dialogues of Plato 4th century bc are written with great narrative skill and in the finest prose; the Meditations of the 2nd-century Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius are a collection of apparently random thoughts, and the Greek in which they are written is eccentric.
Yet both are classed as literature, while the speculations of other philosophers, ancient and modern, are not. Certain scientific works endure as literature long after their scientific content has become outdated. This is particularly true of books of natural history, where the element of personal observation is of special importance.
Oratorythe art of persuasion, was long considered a great literary art. The oratory of the American Indianfor instance, is famous, while in Classical Greece, Polymnia was the muse sacred to poetry and oratory. Today, however, oratory is more usually thought of as a craft than as an art.
Most critics would not admit advertising copywriting, purely commercial fiction, or cinema and television scripts as accepted forms of literary expression, although others would hotly dispute their exclusion. The test in individual cases would seem to be one of enduring satisfaction and, of course, truth.
Indeed, it becomes more and more difficult to categorize literature, for in modern civilization words are everywhere. Man is subject to a continuous flood of communication. Most of it is fugitive, but here and there—in high-level journalism, in television, in the cinema, in commercial fiction, in westerns and detective stories, and in plain, expository prose—some writing, almost by accident, achieves an aesthetic satisfaction, a depth and relevance that entitle it to stand with other examples of the art of literature.Authors' literary style is determined by the type of writing they are doing and who their audience is.
Literary style is a unique way of presenting a piece of writing. About the OWL The RSCC OWL was born June 5, It's among the oldest (and wisest) OWLs. Types of Style. There are four basic literary styles used in writing. These styles distinguish the works of different authors, one from another.
Here are four styles of writing: Expository or Argumentative Style. Expository writing style is a subject-oriented style. Sample Story. Summary. Analysis! Robin Hood.
Robin Hood stole goods and money from the rich residents of his town to give to the town’s poorer residents. Definition and a list of examples of style.
In literature, style comprises many literary devices that authors employ to create a distinct feel for a work. Literary Devices Literary Devices, Terms, and Elements. Some types of writing are required to have a certain style, such as academic or journalistic writing.
However, every work of. Literature reviews are pervasive throughout various academic disciplines, and thus you can adopt various approaches to effectively organize and write your literature review. The University of Southern California created a summarized list of the various types of literature reviews, reprinted here.